Trauma  with a capital “T” is typically an emotional response to a terrible event or experience; but trauma with a small “t” can be just as debilitating and may be the result of, for example, ongoing  neclect/abuse in child or adulthood. In either case, we may experience unpredictable emotions, flashbacks, strained relationships and physical symptoms like headaches or nausea that seem to have no biological cause. Clients need help normalizing these emotional responses and finding constructive ways to process them. Classic post-hypnotic responses are often taking place when clients are activated by past trauma, and they can sometimes feel they are right back in the original trauma, experiencing everything they did at that time. I use Gestalt, Internal Family Systems (IFS), and clinical hypnotherapeutic approaches to support clients’ to process trauma.